Archive for June, 2011

Letter to the New King of Denmark Detailing the Story of Hamlet

It began when Hamlet met the ghost of his father. The ghost spoke to him, stating that it is his father’s spirit, and he was murdered by Claudius. Ordering Hamlet to seek revenge on the man who took over his throne and married his wife, the ghost disappears with the dawn.

Prince Hamlet devotes himself to avenging his father’s death, but, he is delayed, entering into a deep depression, and madness. Claudius and Gertrude worry about the prince’s behavior and try to find out its cause. They use a pair of Hamlet’s friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, to watch him. When Polonius suggests that Hamlet may be mad with love for his daughter, Ophelia, Claudius agrees to spy on Hamlet while in conversation with the girl. Although Hamlet seems mad, he does not seem to love Ophelia: he orders her to go through a nunnery, and says that he wished to ban marriages.

A group of traveling actors came to Elsinore, and Hamlet takes advantage of the opportunity to test his uncle’s guilt. He planned to have the players perform a scene closely resembling the way Hamlet imagines his uncle to have murdered his father, so that if Claudius is guilty, he will act guilty. When the moment of the murder arrives in the theater, Claudius leaps up and leaves the room. Hamlet and I agreed that this proves he is guilty. Hamlet goes to kill Claudius but finds him praying. Since he believed that killing Claudius while in prayer would send Claudius’s soul to heaven, Hamlet thought that would be a poor way of revenge, and so he decided to wait. Claudius now frightened of Hamlet’s madness and fearing for his own safety, orders that Hamlet be sent to England at once.

Hamlet goes to meet with his mother, in whose bedroom Polonius had hidden behind a tapestry. Hearing a noise from behind the tapestry, Hamlet believes the king is hiding there. He draws his sword and stabs through the fabric, killing Polonius. For this crime, he is immediately sent off to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Yet, Claudius’s plan for Hamlet included more than banishment, as he has given Rosencrantz and Guildenstern sealed orders for the King of England demanding that Hamlet be put to death.

In the aftermath of her father’s death, Ophelia went mad with grief and drowns in the river. Polonius’s son, Laertes, who had been staying in France, returns to Denmark in rage. Claudius convinces him that Hamlet is to blame for his father’s and sister’s deaths. When Horatio and the king receive letters from Hamlet indicating that the prince has returned to Denmark after pirates attacked his ship while traveling to England, Claudius makes up a plan to use Laertes’ desire for revenge to secure Hamlet’s death. Laertes will fence with Hamlet, but Claudius will poison Laertes’ blade so that if he draws blood, Hamlet will die. As a backup plan, the king decides to poison a goblet, which he will give Hamlet to drink should Hamlet score the first or second hits of the match. Hamlet returned to the area of Elsinore just as Ophelia’s funeral is taking place. Stricken with grief, he attacked Laertes and declared that he had always loved Ophelia. Back at the castle, he tells me that he thinks one must be prepared to die, since death can come at any time. A courtier named Osric arrived on Claudius’s orders to arrange the fencing match between Hamlet and Laertes.

 

As soon as the sword-fighting began, Hamlet scored the first hit. The king then offered the poisoned goblet, but Hamlet rejected the drink. Instead, Gertrude takes a drink from it and is killed by the poison. Laertes succeeds in cutting Hamlet, though Hamlet does not die of the poison instantly. After an accidental switch of swords, Laertes is cut by his own poisoned sword blade, and, after telling Hamlet that Claudius is responsible for the queen’s death, he dies from the blade’s poison. Hamlet then stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword and forces him to drink down the rest of the poisoned wine. Claudius dies, and Hamlet dies right after getting his revenge.

It began when Hamlet met the ghost of his father. The ghost spoke to him, stating that it is his father’s spirit, and he was murdered by Claudius. Ordering Hamlet to seek revenge on the man who took over his throne and married his wife, the ghost disappears with the dawn.

Prince Hamlet devotes himself to avenging his father’s death, but, he is delayed, entering into a deep depression, and madness. Claudius and Gertrude worry about the prince’s behavior and try to find out its cause. They use a pair of Hamlet’s friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, to watch him. When Polonius suggests that Hamlet may be mad with love for his daughter, Ophelia, Claudius agrees to spy on Hamlet while in conversation with the girl. Although Hamlet seems mad, he does not seem to love Ophelia: he orders her to go through a nunnery, and says that he wished to ban marriages.

A group of traveling actors came to Elsinore, and Hamlet takes advantage of the opportunity to test his uncle’s guilt. He planned to have the players perform a scene closely resembling the way Hamlet imagines his uncle to have murdered his father, so that if Claudius is guilty, he will act guilty. When the moment of the murder arrives in the theater, Claudius leaps up and leaves the room. Hamlet and I agreed that this proves he is guilty. Hamlet goes to kill Claudius but finds him praying. Since he believed that killing Claudius while in prayer would send Claudius’s soul to heaven, Hamlet thought that would be a poor way of revenge, and so he decided to wait. Claudius now frightened of Hamlet’s madness and fearing for his own safety, orders that Hamlet be sent to England at once.

Hamlet goes to meet with his mother, in whose bedroom Polonius had hidden behind a tapestry. Hearing a noise from behind the tapestry, Hamlet believes the king is hiding there. He draws his sword and stabs through the fabric, killing Polonius. For this crime, he is immediately sent off to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Yet, Claudius’s plan for Hamlet included more than banishment, as he has given Rosencrantz and Guildenstern sealed orders for the King of England demanding that Hamlet be put to death.

In the aftermath of her father’s death, Ophelia went mad with grief and drowns in the river. Polonius’s son, Laertes, who had been staying in France, returns to Denmark in rage. Claudius convinces him that Hamlet is to blame for his father’s and sister’s deaths. When Horatio and the king receive letters from Hamlet indicating that the prince has returned to Denmark after pirates attacked his ship while traveling to England, Claudius makes up a plan to use Laertes’ desire for revenge to secure Hamlet’s death. Laertes will fence with Hamlet, but Claudius will poison Laertes’ blade so that if he draws blood, Hamlet will die. As a backup plan, the king decides to poison a goblet, which he will give Hamlet to drink should Hamlet score the first or second hits of the match. Hamlet returned to the area of Elsinore just as Ophelia’s funeral is taking place. Stricken with grief, he attacked Laertes and declared that he had always loved Ophelia. Back at the castle, he tells me that he thinks one must be prepared to die, since death can come at any time. A courtier named Osric arrived on Claudius’s orders to arrange the fencing match between Hamlet and Laertes.

 

As soon as the sword-fighting began, Hamlet scored the first hit. The king then offered the poisoned goblet, but Hamlet rejected the drink. Instead, Gertrude takes a drink from it and is killed by the poison. Laertes succeeds in cutting Hamlet, though Hamlet does not die of the poison instantly. After an accidental switch of swords, Laertes is cut by his own poisoned sword blade, and, after telling Hamlet that Claudius is responsible for the queen’s death, he dies from the blade’s poison. Hamlet then stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword and forces him to drink down the rest of the poisoned wine. Claudius dies, and Hamlet dies right after getting his revenge.

It began when Hamlet met the ghost of his father. The ghost spoke to him, stating that it is his father’s spirit, and he was murdered by Claudius. Ordering Hamlet to seek revenge on the man who took over his throne and married his wife, the ghost disappears with the dawn.

Prince Hamlet devotes himself to avenging his father’s death, but, he is delayed, entering into a deep depression, and madness. Claudius and Gertrude worry about the prince’s behavior and try to find out its cause. They use a pair of Hamlet’s friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, to watch him. When Polonius suggests that Hamlet may be mad with love for his daughter, Ophelia, Claudius agrees to spy on Hamlet while in conversation with the girl. Although Hamlet seems mad, he does not seem to love Ophelia: he orders her to go through a nunnery, and says that he wished to ban marriages.

A group of traveling actors came to Elsinore, and Hamlet takes advantage of the opportunity to test his uncle’s guilt. He planned to have the players perform a scene closely resembling the way Hamlet imagines his uncle to have murdered his father, so that if Claudius is guilty, he will act guilty. When the moment of the murder arrives in the theater, Claudius leaps up and leaves the room. Hamlet and I agreed that this proves he is guilty. Hamlet goes to kill Claudius but finds him praying. Since he believed that killing Claudius while in prayer would send Claudius’s soul to heaven, Hamlet thought that would be a poor way of revenge, and so he decided to wait. Claudius now frightened of Hamlet’s madness and fearing for his own safety, orders that Hamlet be sent to England at once.

Hamlet goes to meet with his mother, in whose bedroom Polonius had hidden behind a tapestry. Hearing a noise from behind the tapestry, Hamlet believes the king is hiding there. He draws his sword and stabs through the fabric, killing Polonius. For this crime, he is immediately sent off to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Yet, Claudius’s plan for Hamlet included more than banishment, as he has given Rosencrantz and Guildenstern sealed orders for the King of England demanding that Hamlet be put to death.

In the aftermath of her father’s death, Ophelia went mad with grief and drowns in the river. Polonius’s son, Laertes, who had been staying in France, returns to Denmark in rage. Claudius convinces him that Hamlet is to blame for his father’s and sister’s deaths. When Horatio and the king receive letters from Hamlet indicating that the prince has returned to Denmark after pirates attacked his ship while traveling to England, Claudius makes up a plan to use Laertes’ desire for revenge to secure Hamlet’s death. Laertes will fence with Hamlet, but Claudius will poison Laertes’ blade so that if he draws blood, Hamlet will die. As a backup plan, the king decides to poison a goblet, which he will give Hamlet to drink should Hamlet score the first or second hits of the match. Hamlet returned to the area of Elsinore just as Ophelia’s funeral is taking place. Stricken with grief, he attacked Laertes and declared that he had always loved Ophelia. Back at the castle, he tells me that he thinks one must be prepared to die, since death can come at any time. A courtier named Osric arrived on Claudius’s orders to arrange the fencing match between Hamlet and Laertes.

 

As soon as the sword-fighting began, Hamlet scored the first hit. The king then offered the poisoned goblet, but Hamlet rejected the drink. Instead, Gertrude takes a drink from it and is killed by the poison. Laertes succeeds in cutting Hamlet, though Hamlet does not die of the poison instantly. After an accidental switch of swords, Laertes is cut by his own poisoned sword blade, and, after telling Hamlet that Claudius is responsible for the queen’s death, he dies from the blade’s poison. Hamlet then stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword and forces him to drink down the rest of the poisoned wine. Claudius dies, and Hamlet dies right after getting his revenge.

It began when Hamlet met the ghost of his father. The ghost spoke to him, stating that it is his father’s spirit, and he was murdered by Claudius. Ordering Hamlet to seek revenge on the man who took over his throne and married his wife, the ghost disappears with the dawn.

Prince Hamlet devotes himself to avenging his father’s death, but, he is delayed, entering into a deep depression, and madness. Claudius and Gertrude worry about the prince’s behavior and try to find out its cause. They use a pair of Hamlet’s friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, to watch him. When Polonius suggests that Hamlet may be mad with love for his daughter, Ophelia, Claudius agrees to spy on Hamlet while in conversation with the girl. Although Hamlet seems mad, he does not seem to love Ophelia: he orders her to go through a nunnery, and says that he wished to ban marriages.

A group of traveling actors came to Elsinore, and Hamlet takes advantage of the opportunity to test his uncle’s guilt. He planned to have the players perform a scene closely resembling the way Hamlet imagines his uncle to have murdered his father, so that if Claudius is guilty, he will act guilty. When the moment of the murder arrives in the theater, Claudius leaps up and leaves the room. Hamlet and I agreed that this proves he is guilty. Hamlet goes to kill Claudius but finds him praying. Since he believed that killing Claudius while in prayer would send Claudius’s soul to heaven, Hamlet thought that would be a poor way of revenge, and so he decided to wait. Claudius now frightened of Hamlet’s madness and fearing for his own safety, orders that Hamlet be sent to England at once.

Hamlet goes to meet with his mother, in whose bedroom Polonius had hidden behind a tapestry. Hearing a noise from behind the tapestry, Hamlet believes the king is hiding there. He draws his sword and stabs through the fabric, killing Polonius. For this crime, he is immediately sent off to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Yet, Claudius’s plan for Hamlet included more than banishment, as he has given Rosencrantz and Guildenstern sealed orders for the King of England demanding that Hamlet be put to death.

In the aftermath of her father’s death, Ophelia went mad with grief and drowns in the river. Polonius’s son, Laertes, who had been staying in France, returns to Denmark in rage. Claudius convinces him that Hamlet is to blame for his father’s and sister’s deaths. When Horatio and the king receive letters from Hamlet indicating that the prince has returned to Denmark after pirates attacked his ship while traveling to England, Claudius makes up a plan to use Laertes’ desire for revenge to secure Hamlet’s death. Laertes will fence with Hamlet, but Claudius will poison Laertes’ blade so that if he draws blood, Hamlet will die. As a backup plan, the king decides to poison a goblet, which he will give Hamlet to drink should Hamlet score the first or second hits of the match. Hamlet returned to the area of Elsinore just as Ophelia’s funeral is taking place. Stricken with grief, he attacked Laertes and declared that he had always loved Ophelia. Back at the castle, he tells me that he thinks one must be prepared to die, since death can come at any time. A courtier named Osric arrived on Claudius’s orders to arrange the fencing match between Hamlet and Laertes.

 

As soon as the sword-fighting began, Hamlet scored the first hit. The king then offered the poisoned goblet, but Hamlet rejected the drink. Instead, Gertrude takes a drink from it and is killed by the poison. Laertes succeeds in cutting Hamlet, though Hamlet does not die of the poison instantly. After an accidental switch of swords, Laertes is cut by his own poisoned sword blade, and, after telling Hamlet that Claudius is responsible for the queen’s death, he dies from the blade’s poison. Hamlet then stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword and forces him to drink down the rest of the poisoned wine. Claudius dies, and Hamlet dies right after getting his revenge.

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My Last Lecture

 

My Last Lecture

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My First Japanese Lesson

Japanese is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities. It is a member of the Japonic  language family, which has a number of proposed relationships with other languages, none of which has gained wide acceptance among historical linguists.

Japanese word order is classified as Subject Object Verb. However, unlike many Indo-European languages, the only strict rule of word order is that the verb must be placed at the end of a sentence; other elements in the sentence may be in various orders for emphasis, or possibly omitted. This is because the Japanese sentence elements are marked with particles that identify their grammatical functions.

In Japanese, the subject or object of a sentence need not be stated if it is obvious from context. In addition, it is commonly felt, particularly in informal spoken Japanese, that the shorter a sentence is, the better.As a result of this grammatical permissiveness, there is a tendency to gravitate towards brevity; Japanese speakers tend to omit pronouns on the theory they are inferred from the previous sentence, and are therefore understood. In the context of the above example, hana-ga nagai would mean “their noses are long,” while nagai by itself would mean “they are long.” A single verb can be a complete sentence: Yatta! (やった!)”They  did it!”.

Japanese has an extensive grammatical system to express politeness and formality. The Japanese language can express differing levels in social status. The differences in social position are determined by a variety of factors including job, age, experience, or even psychological state. The person in the lower position is expected to use a polite form of speech, whereas the other might use a more plain form. Strangers will also speak to each other politely. Japanese children rarely use polite speech until they are teens, at which point they are expected to begin speaking in a more adult manner.

Most Japanese sentences contain both kanji and hiragana. Kanji is used for nouns  and the stems of verbs, and hiragana for the endings of verbs and for grammatical particles. Foreign borrowings are normally spelled in katakana. Some Japanese words are written with different kanji depending on the specific usage of the word—for instance, the word naosu  is written 治す when it refers to curing a person, and 直す when it refers to fixing an object.

Traditionally, Japanese is written in a format called tategaki, which copies the traditional Chinese system. In this format, the characters are written in columns going from top to bottom, with columns ordered from right to left. After reaching the bottom of each column, the reader continues at the top of the column to the left of the current one. Modern Japanese also uses another writing format, called yokogaki. This writing format is horizontal and reads from left to right, just like English. A book printed in tategaki opens from what a Westerner would call the back, while a book printed in yokogaki opens from what traditionally in Japan would have been considered the back.

Japanese has five vowels, and vowel length is phonemic, with each having both a short and a long version. Elongated vowels are usually denoted with a macron over the vowel in rōmaji, or a chōonpu succeeding the vowel in Japanese.

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